Here is Old Fort Niagara's list of living history events for 2019. Please contact us in advance to pre-register for these events. Units that have attended our events previously need only let us know that you plan to attend along with estimated numbers, billeting requirements, etc. New units should send us an application letter or email with photos and references. Contact: Glenn Gugino, Assistant Programs Manager, Old Fort Niagara, Post Office Box 169, Youngstown, NY 14174. [email protected]


2019 Schedule of Events


January 5    Twelfth Night Ball

February 16   Winter Woods Battle

April 27-28    Patriots Day Weekend

May 4-5   Civil War Artillery School

May 25-26   Soldiers through the Ages

July 5-6-7   French and Indian War Encampment

August 10-11   Soldiers of the Revolution

August 31-September 1  War of 1812 Encampment


French and Indian War Encampment Participant Schedule

Thursday, July 4

9:00 am Sutlers may carry in equipment. French and allied Natives may carry into fort.

Noon – 10:00 pm Registration at the public parking lot- east end.

Noon British and allied Natives may drive into camp.

4:30 pm French and allied Natives may drive into fort. Sutlers may drive into fort.

7:30 pm Officers Call to go over battle scenarios- behind Visitor Center



Friday, July 5

6:30-8:00 am – Showers at Fort Niagara Pool

7:15 am – 8:30 am Participant breakfast at maintenance building.

8:00 am All vehicles must be out of fort and camps. Fort open to visitors.

8:00 am – 10:00 am Registration at parking lot, east end.

8:30 am Officers Call behind Visitor Center.

9:00 am  Ice call at Sally Port and British Camp

10:30 am Opening Ceremony/Colors on the Glacis/Safety Inspection

11:00 am Siege Tour (Fort staff)

11:15 am Opening Skirmish – Pigeon Hunters- Outer Works

11:30 am   Siege Demonstration- British lines and Outer Works

Noon   Fort Garrison and Besieging Army begin harassing fire

12:30 pm Military Music at the Rush Bagot Monument

1:00 pm   Kids Drill

1:30 pm   Safety Inspection

2:00 pm Battle- French Sortie

2:30 pm Siege Tour (fort staff)

3:30 pm   Native Council with Pouchot

4:00 pm   Artillery Demonstration- Dauphin Battery

4:30 pm Ice Call at Sally Port and British Camp

6:00 pm Presentation- Pittsburgh’s Lost Outpost- Jason A. Cherry

7:00 pm Fort closes to visitors. Participants may drive in to unload

7:00 pm – 8:30 pm   Showers at Fort Niagara Pool.  Registration at Fort Office.

8:00 – 11:00 pm Tavern at the Officers Club



Saturday, July 6

6:30-8:00 am – Showers at Fort Niagara Pool

7:15 am – 8:30 am Participant breakfast at maintenance building.

8:00 am All vehicles must be out of fort and camps. Fort open to visitors.

8:30 am Officers Call behind Visitor Center.

9:30 am  Ice call at Sally Port and British Camp

10:00 am Siege Tour (fort staff)

10:30 am  Native Council on the Glacis

11:00 am Safety Inspection

11:30 am Siege Demonstration

Noon Harassing fire between Outer Works and British Sap  

12:30 pm   Military Music Demonstration- Rush Bagot Monument

1:00 pm  Kids Drill

1:30 pm Safety Inspection in camps

2:00 pm  British Assault on the Fort

2:45 pm  Siege Tour (fort staff)

3:00 pm  Fur Trade Demonstration

4:00 pm   Artillery Firing Demonstration- Dauphin Battery

4:30 pm   Ice Call- Sally Port and British Camp

7:00 pm    Fort closes to visitors. Participants may drive into fort to load/unload

7:00 pm – 8:30 pm   Showers at Fort Niagara Pool

7:15 pm   18th Century Country Dancing behind the Visitor Center

8:00 pm – 11:00 pm  Tavern at Officers Club



Sunday, July 7

6:30-8:00 am – Showers at Fort Niagara Pool

7:15 am – 8:30 am Participant breakfast at maintenance building.

8:00 am All vehicles must be out of fort and camps. Fort open to visitors.

8:30 am Officers Call behind Visitor Center.

9:00 am  Ice call Sally Port and British Camp

10:00 am  Church Call, location tba.

10:30 am  Safety Inspection in camps. Siege Tour

11:00 am  Battle of la Belle Famille

12:30 pm   Military Music at the Rush Bagot Monument

1:00 pm  Kids Drill

1:30 pm  Safety inspection in camps.

2:00 pm  British Assault Outer Works

2:30 pm  Surrender Ceremonies

4:00 pm  Vehicles allowed into Fort and camps for loading.


If you wish to stay over on Sunday evening, please notify the office during the day on Sunday.  Please be clear by 8:00 am on Monday, when the fort opens to visitors. Thank you.




READ THESE RULES AND REGS CAREFULLY as they contain new information since the last time you may have read them!


Unit or individual participation in an event at Old Fort Niagara is by invitation only, at the sole discretion of the Old Fort Niagara Association.  Units or individuals who are not specifically invited by the Old Fort Niagara Association are not allowed.  Failure of a unit or individual to conform to our “General Participant Rules and Regulations for Old Fort Niagara Events”, or our “Weapons and Black Powder Regulations” may result in removal from an event and/or disqualification of an individual or unit from participation in future OFN-sponsored events.  Likewise, failure to follow the instructions of OFN staff and volunteers, or OFN-appointed provosts or other program officers, may result in removal from an event and/or disqualification of an individual or unit from participation in future OFN-sponsored events.


All participants must check in at Registration upon arrival at the site.  There you will turn in your Volunteer Service Agreement form and Liability Waiver/Photo Release form.  Every adult must complete and sign these forms in order to participate in one of Old Fort Niagara’s events.  At registration, you will also receive a packet of additional information specific to the event, directions to your camp and parking locations, and participant pass.  Non-costumed dependents will not receive a pass, or free meals (if offered), and will be required to pay daily admission.


The participant parking area will designated at each event.  Participants must park only in the designated participant parking area.  Participants are not allowed to park in the public visitor lot.  Vehicles are not permitted to remain overnight in the fort, or in the outer works.  Participant vehicles are not allowed to park on the approach road to the Postern Gate, or in the loading area adjacent to the Postern Gate.  Any participant vehicles found in these locations will be ticketed by the New York State Park Police and may be towed at your expense.


a. Participants are expected to be in appropriate period dress for the duration of our public hours and are highly encouraged to remain in period dress for the duration of the entire event.  No non-period uniforms or civilian clothing are allowed.

b. Units are expected to bring their own appropriate period tentage and equipment. 

c. Period camps are to be maintained free of anachronisms, with any modern items hidden by period coverings.

d. Indoor quarters or barracks are extremely limited and, other than in the Boulangerie and Bakehouse, fireplaces are not to be used. 

e. Units or individuals assigned indoor space are responsible for keeping it clean, historically presentable, and open to viewing by the public. 

f. Units or Individuals assigned indoor space may rearrange furniture within that space but must return the furniture to its original placement prior to the end of the event.  Likewise, any unscrewed light bulbs should be screwed in again and the assigned space policed for cleanliness.  Failure to leave a clean and properly reset room may disqualify a unit or individual from any future use of interior space.

g. No cigarettes or other anachronisms are allowed in view of the public.

h. There is NO SMOKING in any building at any time, including after hours.

i. Participants who exhibit anachronisms during public hours will be asked to desist.

j. Military discipline and courtesy is to be observed while the event is open to the public.

k. All participants staying in the historic area, whether in camp or in a building, are expected to keep their areas clean and free of litter; use caution with candles or lanterns; and clean up after themselves.

l. On the rare occasion that remaining overnight beyond the conclusion of the event is a possibility (staying overnight from Sunday to Monday, for example) anyone needing to do so must notify the administrative office by noon of that day.  If the additional overnight is approved, individuals must be entirely clear of the fort prior to 8:00am the following morning.



a. Other than in the Boulangerie and Bakehouse, fireplaces are not to be used.

b. Campfire locations will be designated by fort staff.  Campfires are allowed only in designated locations and only using an OFN-provided fire pad.

c. No fire pits may be dug.

d. A limited number of fire pads will be provided and must be used when building a fire.  For any fire being built, the individual or unit must also provide and maintain a period bucket filled with water.  (No folding canvas buckets please.)  Please be considerate of other participants when using the pads.

e. All fires must remain supervised.  Unsupervised fires will be extinguished and the irresponsible units noted.


ALL participants with non-period tentage, trailers, campers and RVs are highly encouraged to make plans to camp at a local campground.  A very small amount of modern camp space is available in Fort Niagara State Park, adjacent to the fort.  This space has ABSOLUTELY NO UTILITIES OR SERVICES and is available on a first-come-first-served basis.  Modern campsites nearby include: Four Mile Creek State Park (800-456-2267); KOA Niagara Falls-North (716-754-8013); and Daisy Barn Campground (716-751-9375).


a. Old Fort Niagara does not allow pets on its grounds

b. Current New York State Park regulations PROHIBIT reenactors from possession or consumption of alcohol.  This regulation includes reenactments at Old Fort Niagara. 

c. Occasionally, the Old Fort Niagara Association is able to secure a special permit allowing us to offer complementary beer and wine to reenactors age 21+, for a limited time and within a limited area.  When and where this occurs, it is the only exception to the aforementioned prohibition.

d. The fort provides free wood, free water, and occasionally free ice.  We DO NOT WANT STRAW — we do not provide it and you should not bring it.

e. Free meals, if offered, will be provided only to participants in period dress.  Times and locations will be announced accordingly.

f. Participants are entitled to a discount on most purchases in either our Museum Shop or our food service facility.  If you are not wearing historical clothing at the time of purchase, please identify yourself as a participant before initiating the transaction.


a. A meeting of unit commanders/representatives will generally take place each morning before public activities commence.  Location: TBA.

b. First Aid Stations will be designated during each event and each unit commander/representative will be made familiar with the Association’s emergency procedures.

c. During every reenactment, an Old Fort Niagara staff member is on duty after-hours and overnight.  Participants will be informed of that staff member’s whereabouts, in case of an emergency.

d. Program Officers and Provosts will be appointed by the Old Fort Niagara Association.

e. Provosts will act as safety officers and will have the full authority of the Association to see that our rules and regulations are being adhered to, and to direct participants to correct situations that do not conform to these guidelines.  Likewise, they are empowered to address and assist with any safety, health and welfare concerns that may arise.

f. Failure to follow the instructions of OFN staff and volunteers, or OFN-appointed Provosts or other Program Officers, may result in removal from an event and/or disqualification of an individual or unit from participation in future OFN-sponsored events.


a. Only military vehicles approved and/or invited by the Old Fort Niagara Association may enter the site or participate in programs at the site.  Non-military vehicles are not allowed.

b. All military vehicles must meet New York State laws with respect to ownership, licensing, insurance, inspection and registration.  All drivers must have a valid driver’s license.  Unlicensed and/or uninsured vehicles are NOT permitted on any roads/areas of Old Fort Niagara or Fort Niagara State Park.

c. No track vehicles of any kind are permitted on any roads/areas of Old Fort Niagara or Fort Niagara State Park.

d. Driving on grass shall be limited.  During wet weather, driving on grass and/or dirt areas may not be permitted.

e. Vehicle owners/operators are liable for damage to turf and/or hard surface areas, and for any and all hazardous vehicle spills, such as brake fluid, radiator coolant.  Vehicle breakdowns and maintenance are the responsibility of the vehicle owners/operators.

f. Because of security and liability issues, all vehicles will be displayed inside Old Fort Niagara and, therefore, must be able to fit through the Postern Gate (adjacent to the Coast Guard).  Dimensions of this gate are: 8’11”(w) x 8’(h).

g. It is the responsibility of vehicle owners/operators to transport, operate and display their vehicle in a manner that does not endanger people or property. 

h. Movement of military vehicles shall be extremely limited, especially during public hours.  All vehicles must have at least one ground spotter to guide the vehicle when it is moving.  Personnel may not ride or hang on the outside of a vehicle.  All weapons mounted on any vehicle must be locked down.

i. Vehicle placement and vehicle movement must be coordinated with event officials.  All vehicle owners/operators must at all times comply with the written and/or verbal instructions of event officials.


Anyone handling edged weapons, small arms weapons, artillery, and/or black powder, is responsible to familiarize themselves with, and act in accordance with the Old Fort Niagara Association’s “Black Powder and Weapons Regulations”.   These are available on our website (www.oldfortniagara.org), or in print, upon request.


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Old Fort Niagara Association — Weapons and Black Powder Regulations


1. All Individuals participating in these demonstrations who personally engage in the use of firearms or artillery must be sixteen (16) years of age or older.

2. All individuals participating in these demonstrations who are not personally engaged in the use of firearms or artillery must be at least twelve (12) years of age, except by the express written consent of the Executive Director.

3. All participants will have their firearms, cartridge boxes, and other weapons inspected by site-appointed safety officers immediately prior to the commencement of each tactical weapons demonstration to ensure that safety standards are properly observed.

4. Safety Officers will have the authority to remove participants found with non-conforming weapons or ammunition.

5. While unloaded pistols are allowed at Old Fort Niagara, they may not be carried in a tactical weapons demonstration.

6. All muskets used on the field during an opposed sides tactical demonstration must have a minimum barrel length of 16 inches and a minimum overall length of 26 inches.

7. Flintlock firearms shall be equipped with a hammer stall of leather, and tight, well-fitting, metal flash guards.  Hammer stalls are to be removed at the "present" or "take-aim" command and returned before loading begins.   All flash guards must be strong enough to withstand the vent blast without bending, and attached so they will not slip down and expose the vent.

8. All firearms must be shown to have a working trigger "safety" mechanism.  In flintlock and percussion ignition weapons, they should remain at both half-cock and in full-cock positions on their own accord.

9. All replica knives, axes, tomahawks, pole arms, swords, and bayonets used for passive demonstration shall have dulled edges and blunted points.  Knives, axes, and other cutting tools used for active demonstration, such as chopping or cutting, shall have sturdy sheaths or scabbards in place whenever the tool is not in use.  Throwing tomahawks, axes or knives ARE NOT permitted.

10. All black powder used at New York State Park facilities must be in the form of prepared cartridges or priming tubes for firearms and/or artillery priming.  Musket cartridges shall be of paper, rolled in the appropriate 18th or 19th century manner and secured in a period manner.  The paper used must be sufficiently heavy to resist damage prior to use, or accidental ignition by stray sparks.  Foil, staples, coin wrappers, or plastic tubes are not permissible.  Only prepared cartridges for firearms and/or artillery cartridges and priming tubes shall be brought to the demonstration area.  Cartridges for rifles must be made in the same manner as those for muskets.

11. No bulk black powder, or powder horns containing black powder, shall be permitted in any demonstration area.

12. Powder horns may be carried but must be empty.  Priming horns may contain no more than one (1) ounce of fffg or ffffg powder.

13. All cartridge boxes (an ammunition magazine carried on the person), must be made of leather and feature a flap or other self-closing mechanism.  No cartridge box may be made of cotton, linen or open-woven wool yarn.

14. No ramrods may be drawn or used during opposed forces tactical demonstrations.

15. Hand-to-hand combat is prohibited at all times.

16. With exception of special ceremonies or other circumstances, no fixed bayonets or unsheathed edged weapons shall be permitted during tactical weapons demonstrations.  Bayonets will not be fixed except upon order or approval of the Executive Director, or the Demonstration Coordinator.  If fixing of bayonets is approved, no closing with fixed bayonets is allowed (100 foot minimum distance).

17. Firearms will be elevated above the heads of opposing tactical weapons demonstration participants before they are discharged.  No weapon is to be discharged toward visitors.  In special cases involving demonstrations in fortifications, where participants are located at unequal heights, the weapons of the side situated at the lower level may be depressed below the position of the opposing side.

18. All firing should cease when opposing sides have closed within one hundred (100) feet; one hundred fifty (150) feet for artillery.

19. No objects/projectiles may be thrown or fired during a tactical weapons demonstration.

20. At the end of a tactical weapons demonstration participants must clear and secure all firearms before leaving the demonstration area.

21. Unit commanders shall verify that all weapons are cleared prior to the unit leaving the field following the demonstration.

22. Any misfires shall be cleared in a safe area, as designated by the Executive Director or the Demonstration Coordinator.

23. All unexpended or dropped cartridges, and other dropped objects, must be policed from the demonstration area and returned to safe storage conditions.  Following each demonstration, each unit shall be responsible for inspecting the area and removing all debris, cartridges, paper, or foil fragments.

ARTILLERY — In addition to the rules cited above …

24. Before any opposed side tactical weapons demonstration, a safety inspection will be made by site staff, appointed safety officers and/or unit commanders.  Safety Officers will have the authority to remove participants found with non-conforming artillery pieces or ammunition.

25. Only carefully made and proofed replica, muzzle-loading artillery pieces shall be used for demonstrations at Old Fort Niagara.  These replicas shall be constructed of steel, cast "iron" or bronze.  All "iron" guns which have been cast shall be made with a seamless steel sleeve.  Vents are to be clean and of a proper size for the weapon, and all implements of proper fit.

26. No cannon or howitzer with a bore of 3.5 inches or smaller shall be fired more frequently than once every five (5) minutes in demonstrations, tactical demonstrations, or opposed-sides tactical weapons demonstrations.

27.  No cannon or howitzer with a bore of 3.5 inches or larger shall be fired more frequently than once every ten (10) minutes in demonstrations, tactical demonstrations, or opposed-sides tactical weapons demonstrations.

28. No mortar shall be fired more frequently than once every five (5) minutes in demonstrations, tactical demonstrations, or opposed-sides tactical weapons demonstrations.

29. All artillery crews at Old Fort Niagara will double worm and double sponge for all blank firings.  Priming tubes, paper cartridges, or friction primers are the only means that may be used for ignition.  Linstocks, portfires or lanyards will be used for firing.

30. No artillery piece is to be discharged toward visitors.  Artillery fired at opposing forces must have a minimum distance of one hundred and fifty (150) feet.

31. Visitors must be kept at least five (5) yards from firearms and twelve (12) yards from artillery.

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Authenticity Standards for Old Fort Niagara’s French and Indian War Encampment.

Part I: Universal Standards

The following standards have been compiled in order to present a more accurate educational program to Old Fort Niagara’s visitors. At its core, the purpose of this event is to further OFNs educational mission, and thus certain non-historic things will need to be kept out of sight. The following rules and standards will apply to all registered event participants old enough to take the field with a musket. (16+) These are not meant to exclude anyone, but rather to encourage them to bring more appropriate things to the event, while leaving less appropriate things at home. As a general rule of thumb, if something looks like it belongs at a Pirate festival, steampunk con, or fantasy LARP, it is probably not appropriate for this event. If you have a piece of evidence to suggest that something we say is unacceptable can be documented to your impression, we are happy to amend these standards if provided evidence. The standards for each impression have items listed as “Best, Better, Acceptable, Discouraged, and Unacceptable.” In many cases items are listed as “Best” over other things because they are best for this siege specifically. We like a good impression, even if it’s not siege specific, but we really appreciate those who take the time to tailor their impressions to the siege.

Best: This means that this piece of kit is excellent for your impression. 

Better: This piece of kit may not be a museum quality reproduction, but it’s still quite good.

Acceptable: Exactly what it sounds like. These are items that won’t get much attention one way or the other.

Discouraged: These are things that fort staff would really prefer you didn’t bring, however they will still be allowed on the field.

Unacceptable: These are things that will not be allowed on the field or in front of the public in the camps. If OFN staff see these things, they will ask you to put them away. Refusal to do so can result in ejection from the site, and being disinvited from future events.

The following are things that are universally unacceptable regardless of impression.

1.            Fairy/elf/fantasy/science fiction makeup.

2.            Pirate costume pieces.

3.            Steampunk regalia.

4.            Live ammunition.

5.            Filled powder horns.

6.            Modern food or beverage containers in the open.

7.            Modern bedding in the open.

8.            Modern tobacco products in front of the public.

Facial hair is discouraged, especially on those portraying soldiers. Even on civilians the case for beards is tenuous at best, but on soldiers it is simply incorrect.  We would encourage event participants to appear clean shaven. We would also ask that camp equipage be kept as sparse as you can manage. Neither of these armies had the luxury of a very robust supply chain.

Part II. Standards for Native American warriors 1759


Best: Scalp locks or prosthetic scalp locks.

Better: Modest “feathered roach” (Hackle feather cluster) NO TURKEY FEATHERS

Acceptable: Short brim round hats, cocked hats, handkerchiefs decorated with trade silver, hoods of great lakes native styles, toques, tapabord, no hat.

Unacceptable: Plains headdresses, turkey feather headdresses, British/French regimental equipment, voyager caps.


Best: White Linen shirts, hand sewn, with narrow cuffs and ruffles.

Better: Same as above machine stitched.

Acceptable: Check shirts, proper block printed shirts, blue linen (French) shirts.

Unacceptable: Black shirts, paisley shirts, striped shirts, cotton calico shirts, wool shirts.


Best: Breechclout of stroud or wool broadcloth, Light decoration with silk ribbon and ring brooches acceptable, in red, blue, black, or green. Clouts should end at mid-thigh.

Discouraged: Excessively long clouts, over-decorated clouts, clouts in other colors, breeches.

Unacceptable: Trousers, leather breechclouts.


Best: Side seam leggings of wool broadcloth or stroud with minor decoration.

Better: Brain tan leather leggings

Discouraged: Over-decorated leggings, poorly fit leggings.

Unacceptable: Gaiters, spatterdashers, center seam leggings.

Garters/leg ties:

Best: Oblique weave finger woven or Heddle loom garters.

Better: Wool, leather, or eelskin leg ties.

Unacceptable: Inkle loom garters, European garters, imitation wampum garters.


Best: Pucker or vamp toe moccasins.

Acceptable: European buckled or tied shoes.

Unacceptable: Modern shoes, half boots or riding boots, dyer moccasins.


Best: Cone and Ball or Triangle style ear/nose bobs, small silver crosses, silver or brass pendants, sterling silver armbands, shell gorgets.

Unacceptable: ear wheels, brass armbands, fleur de lis ear/nose bobs, contemporary accessories.


Best: Trade guns, fusil de chasse, fusil de traite.

Better: Fowlers.

Acceptable: Rifles, military muskets.

Unacceptable: Rifles or muskets that postdate the 18th century, blunderbuss, blanket guns.

Ammunition carrying:

Best: Quilled shot bags and slit pouches with Native influenced horns.

Acceptable: Plain shot pouches and slit pouches with plain horns.

Unacceptable: Cartridge boxes and pouches, belly boxes, possibles bags.


Best: Gourd canteens.

Better: Glass or ceramic bottles carried by hemp or leather straps.

Discouraged: Tin or wood canteens

Part III: Standards for 1759 Troupe de Terre and Marines

Hats and Caps

Best: Round blocked soldier’s chapeau bound in appropriate colored metallic lace for the regiment portrayed.

Better: Red knit toque, or fatigue cap (to be worn during fatigue duty or in camp) Oval blocked soldier’s chapeau bound in metallic lace.

Unacceptable: Fur caps, Voyager caps, handkerchief tied around the head, no headwear.


Best: Hand sewn linen stock, black for TDT, white for Marine.

Better: neckerchiefs of the same colors as above, machine.

Unacceptable: Leather or horsehair neck stocks.


Best: Well fit, hand stitched coats of wool broadcloth, color of collar and cuffs as well as buttons and pocket design TBD by the unit portrayed.

Acceptable: Well fit, machine stitched coats of wool broadcloth, or no coat at all.

Discouraged: Poorly fit coats.

Unacceptable: Coats made of materials other than wool broadcloth, coats of 17th or early 18th century design. (pre-1750s)


Best: Well fit, hand stitched veste of Serge or other light woolen material.

Better: Same as above out of broadcloth, or machine sewn.

Discouraged: Poorly fit vestes.

Unacceptable: vestes made of upholstery material or nylon.


Best: Hand sewn linen or PERIOD cotton (not cotton calico) shirts with short standing collars and thin cuffs.

Better: Same as above but machine sewn.

Acceptable: Shirts with full size collars or larger cuffs.

Unacceptable: Modern dress shirts, shirts made of cotton calico (unless worn underneath other acceptable garments)


Best: Well fit, hand sewn breeches of serge or other lightweight woolen with a French fly.

Better: Breeches of broadcloth or with machine sewing.

Discouraged: Baggy breeches, fall front breeches.

Unacceptable: Trousers, modern pants of any kind.


Best: Well fit white canvas gaiters.

Better: Well fit Indian style leggings, secured by strips of cloth or native style garters.

Discouraged: Baggy leggings or gaiters.

Unacceptable: Spatterdashers, black gaiters, buckskin leggings.


Best: Hand-made 18th century style buckled shoes.

Better: machine made 18th century style buckled shoes, moccasins if worn with native leggings.

Acceptable: Half boots hidden by leggings or gaiters, tied 18th century shoes.

Unacceptable: Riding boots, contemporary moccasins, obviously modern shoes.


Best: Pattern 1728 or similar French muskets.

Better: Fusil de chasse or fusil de traite.

Acceptable: 1760s or 1770s model French muskets.

Discouraged: British arms.

Unacceptable: Blunderbuss, rifles, canoe guns, anything that isn’t a flintlock.


Best: Bayonet carried on a waistbelt.

Better: Bayonet and sword, or just a sword, no sidearm.

Acceptable: axes carried in the belt.

Unacceptable: Non-french swords, dirks, daggers, pipe tomahawks, pistols.

Ammunition carrying:

Best: Giberne with buff strap (TDT or Marine) or red Russia leather gargousier carried on a buff waistbelt with a pulverin (for Marine.)

Better: Other colors of giberne or gargousier.

Discouraged: Shot pouches, horns other than pulverins

Unacceptable: British boxes, possibles bags.


Best: Large ~ 1 2 liter gourd canteens shared between a mess, or individual size gourd canteens.

Better: Ceramic or glass bottles carried on hemp or leather straps.

Acceptable: Tin British canteens.

Unacceptable: 17th century leather bottles or canteens.

Part IV: Standards for 1759 Milice


Best: red knit toque

Acceptable: Toques in other colors, tapabord, sewn wool toques, handkerchief tied around the head.

Unacceptable: Fur caps, voyager caps, felt hats, straw hats, workman’s caps, top hats.


Best: Silk, linen, or cotton neckerchief, hand hemmed.

Acceptable: Linen rollers, machine hemmed neckwear.

Unacceptable: Military horsehair or leather neck stocks.


Best: Well fit, hand sewn single color capote.

Better: Single color capotes with machine stitching.

Acceptable: Blanket coats, capotes with contrasting colors.

Unacceptable: Blanket shirts, military coats, 19th century trapper coats.


Best: Well fit hand sewn vestes made of wool cloth.

Better: Same as above, but machine sewn.

Discouraged: Baggy or poorly fit vestes.

Unacceptable: Vestes made with upholstery fabric, later century collared jackets.


Best: Well fit hand sewn square cut gilets made of wool cloth, with or without sleeves.

Better: Same, but machine sewn.

Discouraged: Baggy gilets, gilets in textiles other than wool.

Unacceptable: Gilets made of upholstery material.


Best: Hand sewn shirts of linen or period correct cotton (NOT cotton calico) with short standing collars and narrow cuffs.

Better: Same as above, machine sewn.

Discouraged: Checked or striped shirts. Shirts with full size collars.

Unacceptable: 19th century woolen shirts, plaid shirts, cotton calico shirts when worn as an outer garment. (Cotton calico may be worn if an acceptable garment is worn over it.)


Best: Undecorated clouts of stroud cloth, or other wool broadcloth.

Acceptable:  Decorated clouts, breeches.

Unacceptable: Trousers, gaitered or otherwise.


Best: Well fit, hand sewn unadorned Indian leggings of wool broadcloth secured by Native garters or strips of wool.

Better: As above, by machine.

Acceptable: Decorated leggings.

Unacceptable: Buckskin leggings, military gaiters or spatterdashers, leggings or gaiters secured by a buckle.


Best: Soulier de beouf

Better: Pucker toe or Vamp toe moccasins.

Acceptable: Buckled or tied period shoes.

Unacceptable: Contemporary moccasins, modern shoes of any kind, civil war boots.


Best: Fusil de chasse or French style trade guns.

Better: 1728 pattern or earlier French muskets, fowlers showing obvious French influence (think fusil de chasse stock shape)

Acceptable: British arms.

Unacceptable: Canoe guns, rifles, blunderbuss.


Best: Boucheron knives or other trade knives, hatchets carried on a sash or thin leather belt.

Better: Neck knives.

Discouraged: Bayonets.

Unacceptable: Swords, daggers, dirks, pistols.

Ammunition carrying:

Best: Plain leather slit pouch or drawstring bag carried by the sash or belt with a plain empty powder horn.

Better: Shoulder carried leather shot pouches.

Acceptable: Native shot pouches.

Unacceptable: Cartridge boxes/pouches, possibles bags.


Best: Large ~ 2 liter gourd canteens shared by a mess, individual sized gourd canteens.

Better: Ceramic or glass bottles carried on hemp or leather straps.

Acceptable: Tin British canteens.

Unacceptable: 17th century leather bottles or canteens.

Part V: Standards for 1759 British regular troops.

Hats and Caps:

Best: Round blocked wool felt hats, worn round with a short brim or cocked.

Better: Same as above but oval blocked, grenadier caps on grenadier impressions, cocked hats.

Unacceptable: Slouch hats, straw hats, fur caps, voyager caps, glengarry caps, top hats.


Best: Hand stitched neckerchief of silk, linen, or cotton. Linen Stocks or rollers.

Better: As above, but machine stitched.

Acceptable: Horsehair or leather stocks.

Unacceptable: No neckwear.


Best: Hand stitched white or checked linen shirt with short collar, short cuffs, and thread buttons or made for sleeve buttons (cuff links)

Better: Machine stitched white or checked linen shirts.

Unacceptable: modern dress shirts, plaid shirts, cotton calico shirts (unless kept under other acceptable garments)


Best: Well fit, hand stitched British regimental coats, laced or unlaced, full length or cut down.

Acceptable: Well fit, machine stitched British regimental coats.

Discouraged: Poorly fit coats.

Unacceptable: Hunting shirts, Blanket shirts, furs.


Best: Hand stitched regimental waistcoats, well fit, with or without lace.

Acceptable: Machine stitched regimental waistcoats, well fit, with or without lace.

Discouraged: Poorly fit waistcoats.

Unacceptable: Waistcoats of cotton canvas, upholstery fabric, or wearing only a waistcoat as an outer garment (except during extreme weather and manual labor.)


Best: Hand stitched, well fit breeches of red wool, leather, or coarse linen.

Acceptable: Machine stitched breeches of the same as above, well fit.

Discouraged: Poorly fit or baggy breeches. 

Unacceptable: Fringed trousers, rev war era overalls, any sort of modern pants (Khakis, jeans, carharts, etc)


Best: “Knox leggings” (Native style leggings with a toecap and under foot strap) of wool with the seam allowance tied to the front of the leg, secured by strips of the same material.

Better: Black Canvas gaiters, Indian leggings.

Acceptable: White canvas gaiters.

Discouraged: Poorly fit/baggy legwear.

Unacceptable: Spatterdashers, leather leggings, mixing European gaiters with Native legwear or vice versa.


Best: Hand-made 18th c. style buckled shoes.

Better: Same as above, but machine assembled

Acceptable: Pucker toe or vamp style moccasins, if worn with Knox/native leggings.

Unacceptable: Obviously modern shoes, modern moccasins, officers’ boots on enlisted soldiers.

Cartridge pouches:

Best: British 20 round 3 buckle pouch on a buff strap.

Better: 9-12 round government sets coupled with a plain powder horn and shot pouch.

Acceptable: Rev war style 21 round pouches converted to 68 warrant specs, 18 round government set boxes.

Unacceptable: Hard body cartridge boxes not listed above, possibles bags, tin boxes.


Best: Long Land pattern muskets.

Better: Dutch muskets, military contract muskets or fusils.

Acceptable: Short Land muskets.

Unacceptable: French arms, blunderbus, cavalry carbines, rifles, canoe guns.


Best: Bayonet carried on a buff waistbelt.

Acceptable: Enlisted swords or small axes carried on a buff waistbelt.

Unacceptable: daggers, pistols, dirks, officers swords on enlisted soldiers

Water carrying:

Best: Kidney shaped tin canteens.

Acceptable: Kidney shaped canteens made of imitation materials, steel, etc. Other shapes of tin canteen.

Unacceptable: Gourds, cheesebox or staved canteens, glass bottles.

Part VI: Standards for 1759 Provincial Troops


Best: Round blocked round hats with 2-3 inch Brims.

Better: Other 1750s civilian hats, cocked hats.

Acceptable: Oval blocked round or cocked hats.

Unacceptable: Straw hats, voyager hats, fur hats, glengarry caps, top hats.


Best: Hand hemmed neckerchiefs or rollers of linen, silk, or cotton.

Better: Same as above, but machine hemmed.

Unacceptable: Horsehair or leather stocks, no neckwear.


Best: Well fit, hand sewn, regimentals of green or drab wool broadcloth.

Better: Blue faced red provincial coats, civilian coats.

Discouraged: Baggy coats.

Unacceptable: No coat in absence of other sleeved garment, Regular British army coats, 1770s coats, blanket coats, hunting shirts.


Best: Well fit, hand sewn civilian style wool or linen waistcoats.

Better: Well fit waistcoats with machine stitching.

Discouraged: Poorly fit waistcoats, cotton canvas waistcoats.

Unacceptable: Upholstery fabric waistcoats, excessively long waistcoats.


Best: well fit, Hand sewn breeches of leather, wool, or linen.

Better: Linen trousers, machine sewn breeches.

Discouraged: baggy breeches, cotton or cotton canvas breeches.

Unacceptable: Fringed trousers, modern pants of any kind, 19th century trousers.


Best: Indian leggings in “Knox” style, with an underfoot strap and toecap, secured with strips of the same wool material as the leggings.

Better: Just stockings, regular Indian leggings.

Acceptable: Military gaiters.

Discouraged: Baggy legwear.

Unacceptable: Buckskin leggings, rev war spatterdashers, leggings secured by buckles.


Best: Hand-made 18th century style buckled shoes.

Better: Machine made 18th century style buckled Shoes.

Acceptable: Center Seam moccasins, shoes with ties, half boots.

Unacceptable: Officers boots on enlisted men, contemporary moccasins, 19th century boots, obviously modern footwear.


Best: Long Land Pattern Muskets, Civilian fowlers, French muskets.

Acceptable: Rifles

Unacceptable: Blunderbuss, canoe guns.

Ammunition Carrying:

Best: Plain leather shot pouch carried with or without 9-12 round government set and a plain empty powder horn.

Better: 18 round government sets.

Discouraged: British military cartridge pouches

Unacceptable: Possibles bags, solid body cartridge boxes, haversacks as cartridge boxes, other textile shot bags.


Best: Bayonet, hunting sword, hatchet, or nothing.

Acceptable: Cutlass in certain contexts (IE Carolina provincials)

Unacceptable: Dirks, daggers, pistols.


Best: British tin kidney shaped canteens, cheesebox canteens, staved canteens.

Better: Other shapes of tin canteen.

Acceptable: Steel canteens, gourd canteens, covered bottle canteens.

Unacceptable: 17th century leather canteens, civil war canteens.

Part VII: Standards for 1759 Rangers


Best: Knit scotch bonnets, round blocked round hats.

Better: Oval blocked round hats, Jockey/light caps (like the ones in period portraits of Rogers or Butler.)

Acceptable: Other scotch bonnets

Unacceptable: French hats, voyager hats, fur hats, glengarry caps.


Best: Hand hemmed Silk, linen, or cotton neckerchiefs or linen rollers.

Better: As above but machine hemmed.

Unacceptable: Leather or horsehair stocks, no neckwear.


Best: Well fit hand sewn Green, blue, or brown wool coats in military or hunting styles.

Better: Other 1750s civilian wool coats in appropriate colors, machine sewn coats.

Discouraged: Baggy coats.

Unacceptable: Regular army coats, shirts or waistcoats worn as an outer garment (extreme heat excepted) hunting shirts, blanket coats.


Best: Well fit hand sewn woolen waistcoats in 1750s styles (single or double breasted, sleeved or not)

Better: Sleeved waistcoats worn as an outer garment, machine sewn waistcoats.

Discouraged: Baggy waistcoats.

Unacceptable: regimental waistcoats, round cut waistcoats, waistcoats made of cotton canvas or upholstery fabric, very long tailed waistcoats.


Best: Well fit hand sewn breeches of wool, linen, or leather.

Better: Wool or linen trousers, machine sewn breeches/trousers.

Discouraged: Poorly fit breeches or trousers, military/regimental breeches.

Unacceptable: Gaitered trousers, fringed trousers.


Best: Well fit wool Indian Leggings secured with wool strips, or native style garters.

Acceptable: None if wearing trousers.

Discouraged: Baggy legwear.

Unacceptable: Military gaiters, buckskin leggings.


Best: Handmade 18th century buckled shoes, pucker toe moccasins.

Better: Vamp toe moccasins, machine made 18th century buckled shoes.

Acceptable: Half boots.

Unacceptable: Contemporary moccasins, obviously modern shoes.


Best: Long Land Pattern muskets, Fowlers.

Better: Dutch or early French muskets.

Acceptable: Short Land Pattern muskets, 1750s style rifles.

Unacceptable: Golden age or plains rifles, Canoe guns, blunderbuss.

Ammunition carrying:

Best:  Small Leather shot bag carried on a waistbelt w/ a plain (and empty) powder horn.

Better: 9-12 round government set boxes, shot bags carried by the shoulder.

Acceptable: Native style shot pouches .

Discouraged: British army cartridge pouches.

Unacceptable: Possibles bags, haversacks as cartridge pouches, tin cartridge pouches, French cartridge pouches.


Best: Cheesebox or staved canteens.

Better: British tin canteens

Acceptable: Stainless steel canteens.

Discouraged: Ceramic or glass bottles.

Unacceptable: 17th century leather canteens.

Part VIII: Standards for Native women, 1759


Best: No hat, hair clubbed or queued with silk or worsted tape w/ paint along the forehead and part. Hoods of great lakes native styles.

Acceptable: Felt round hats.

Unacceptable: Cocked hats, top hats, plains headdresses, straw hats, fur hats, voyager hats.

Upper body/over the shirt:

Best: Match coats with minor worsted wool or silk tape decoration, a blanket wrapped around the body, just a shirt/shift, European bedgowns

Unacceptable: Regimental coats, fringed leather capes, hunting shirts, civil war or olive drab blankets.


Best: Handsewn trade shirts of white linen or PERIOD cotton with narrow cuffs and ruffles.

Better: Same as above but machine stitched, regular shirts, checked shirts.

Unacceptable: Black shirts, modern shirts, wool shirts, paisley shirts, cotton calico shirts worn as outer garment.


Best: Mildly decorated wrap skirts of woolen material with worsted or silk tape with the shirt worn OVER the skirt.

Discouraged: Leather wrap skirts.

Unacceptable: European skirts or gowns, breeches, trousers, breech clouts, modern skirts.


Best: Well fit leggings of woolen material with minor bead or wool/silk tape decoration, No leggings. Garters of wool strips or oblique weave/heddle loom weaving, leather strips, or eelskin.

Better: Leather leggings.

Acceptable: European stockings.

Unacceptable: Gaiters or spaterdashers, European garters, inkle loom “fingerwoven” garters.


Best: Pucker or Vamp toe moccasins.

Acceptable: European buckled/tied shoes.

Unacceptable: Dyer moccasins, boots, obviously modern footwear.


Best: Cone and Ball or Triangle style ear/nosebobs, small silver crosses, silver or brass pendants, glass trade beads.

Unacceptable: ear wheels, brass armbands, fleur de lis ear/nosebobs, contemporary accessories.

Part IX: French and British Adult Female Followers.

Guideline Intentions: As a museum and historic site we wish to present the most accurate depiction of life during the Siege of Niagara in 1759. With that in mind, we understand that the circumstances of many of our participants vary. To encourage the spirit of continued improvement clothing items and accessories have been categorized into 5 levels: Best, Better, Acceptable, Discouraged, and Unacceptable. 

General Notes

**It should always be remembered that certain fabrics and styles are more appropriate to one impression than another.  For example, it is perfectly acceptable for an officer’s wife to wear a silk gown or a riding habit, but not for a camp follower or laundress.

**Garments should be pressed.  This doesn’t mean that they are “band box perfect” but that they should have been ironed the last time they were washed.  Wrinkles are certainly acceptable and part of the nature of some fabrics but they should, at some point, have been introduced to an iron, especially caps, neckerchiefs and aprons.

** Know your impression! The garments of a laundress will be very different than a fine lady.  Please keep in mind the number of fine ladies at Fort Niagara was small in comparison to working females.                                                               


Best: Hand stitched white linen, hemp or fine cotton shift with fitted cuffs and elbow length sleeves, ties or links closing the cuffs. Remember fine cotton shifts were worn by the wealthy.

Better: Machine stitched white linen, fine cotton, or hemp shifts

Acceptable:  Above but with drawstring cuffs, cotton muslin shifts

Unacceptable: Shifts of any color but white, shifts worn up by the collar bone, or worn with the neckline over the shoulders. Long sleeves, shifts showing below the hem of the petticoats, only wearing a shift and no upper garment.


Best: Hand knit wool, silk or linen stockings, woven, or knit garters

Better: Machine made wool, linen or cotton stockings, and cotton twill tape garters

Discouraged: Horizontally striped stockings, athletic stockings, modern knee socks

***An impression of the poorest sort could have holey and/or patched stockings or none at all.


Best: Handmade 18th c. style buckled shoes, sabot, souliers de boeuf (beef shoes), and mules

Better: Same as above, but machine assembled

Discouraged: Modern shoes designed or reconfigured into an 18th century silhouette.  If new to reenacting, a modern leather shoe in black or brown of a nondescript nature that does not draw attention.

Unacceptable: Obviously modern shoes, modern moccasins, bare feet – while the latter is correct, it does not meet modern health and safety site standards and requirements.

Upper body support:

*** Good underwear is the hanger that allows your other clothes to hang properly and will go a long way in making less than perfect items look, feel, and move better.

Best: Well fit, hand stitched stays which create an appropriate conical shape, made of plain linen, silk, or worsted wool exterior fabric. Well-made leather stays are also acceptable for the British servants.  Corset Blanc can be worn by those portraying French.

Better: Well fit stays/Corset Blanc with no visible machine stitching

Acceptable: Visible machine stitching or inappropriate fabrics when worn under an upper garment, bedgown worn with a sports bra.

Unacceptable: 19th century corsets, bustiers, or any other tight fitting garment that ends below the bust.


Best: Two or more hand stitched full-bodied (2.5 – 3yds wide) petticoats made from linen, hemp, wool flannel, or light weight wools, small hems or bound by tape, pleated to a waistband with pocket slits at the sides. They may also be quilted. French length: mid to lower calf, British Length: lower calf to ankle.  Stripes and colors consistent with 18th century fabrics and design.

Better: Two or more machine sewn petticoats of the appropriate lengths, width, and fabric

Discouraged: Only one petticoat, longer petticoat worn under a shorter top petticoat

Unacceptable: Modern skirts, inappropriate fabrics for a petticoat (e.g. check of any sort, paisley prints, modern calico/quilting cotton petticoats), horizontal tucks at the bottom of a petticoat for women, but which is perfectly acceptable for pre-adolescent children.

**It should be remembered that upper class women used upper class fabrics – silk or fine wools and cotton.  These petticoats would also have the proper supports in the way of pocket hoops or hip pads. Don’t wear high class garments with lower class underwear and vice versa.  Lower class women engaged in manual labor would wear shorter petticoats than those of their less-active mistresses.

Upper body Garments

Best: Well fit, hand stitched stomacher-front gown, jacket, juste, or bedgown/manteaux de lit in the style of the 1750s made of linen, hemp, printed cotton, or lightweight wool. French women also wore a jacket with removable sleeves that tied to the body of the garment. Again, for best, this should be hand sewn in the appropriate fabrics.

Better: Well fit, machine sewn jacket, gown, or bedgown with hand-stitched details such as hems and decorative trims.

Acceptable: Well fit, machine stitched gown, jacket, or bedgown

Discouraged: Poorly fit garments, visible front-closing gown, short gowns, only stays and shift (unless terribly hot or demonstrating laundry or other hard labor.)

Unacceptable: Fitted garments (e.g. jackets, gowns) without stays, sleeveless “bodices” on British army followers (French bodices should have ribbon ties to fasten the separate sleeves). Fabrics and colors that are inappropriate for the 1750s (e.g. paisley, modern calico, cabbage roses, aniline dyes or certain upholstery fabrics.) are also unacceptable.


Best: Hand-sewn white or checked, striped, or natural hemp, linen or wool, length close to the petticoat, width of at least a yard, ties from thin linen, cotton or woven tape.  Young girls may wear bib-aprons regardless of ethnicity.

Discouraged: self-fabric ties, less than a yard in width, very short work aprons, floral printed fabrics, and British women wearing bibbed aprons.


Best: Hand sewn white linen, fine cotton or hemp, caps in a style of the 1750s, may be trimmed with ribbon, well starched and pressed

Acceptable: Machine sewn caps in linen or fine cotton, starched and pressed.

Discouraged: Unpressed machine sewn caps, quilting cotton, 1770s style caps

Unacceptable: Mob caps, no caps, colored caps, caps worn over the forehead, hair hanging down out of the cap.


Best: All hair put up in a bun or twist on the top back of the head, well secured under the cap some hair showing around the forehead.

Unacceptable: Bangs down on the forehead, hair hanging down and showing under the cap.


*** Jewelry must be consistent with the class of individual portrayed.

Best: Appropriate 18th century documented jewelry, females may wear a ribbon around the neck, and French women could wear a crucifix.

Acceptable: Clear retainers in facial or modern ear piercings, wedding rings

Discouraged: engagement rings (we have had many people lose these, we would hate for this to happen to anyone else)

Unacceptable: Metal or colored plastic facial and non -lobe ear jewelry, wrist watches and Fit Bits.

Pockets, bags, baskets:

Best: Hand stitched, plain or embroidered pocket(s) worn under the petticoats, market wallets

Better: Machine sewn pocket(s), baskets

Discouraged: Pockets worn above the petticoats and showing, Haversacks or purses, modern baskets, leather belt with knives worn around the waist.

Eye wear and Miscellaneous accessories:

Best: Period appropriate glasses, contacts

Discouraged: Modern eye wear, sunglasses, large knives

Unacceptable: Swords, leather belts, colored nail polish


Best: Straw, wool felt, or fabric covered flat hat with a shallow crown, or Coif/Hood hand stitched in linen, silk, or hemp.

Acceptable:  Silk Bonnets

Unacceptable: Straw hat with modern rounded crowns, Slouch hats, fur caps, voyager caps, glengarry caps.


Best:  Well-pressed, hand stitched neckerchief/fichu of silk, linen, light-weight wool, or cotton.

Better: As above, but machine stitched.

Unacceptable: Printed cotton in modern designs and colors (e.g. Paisley prints)

Cloaks and outerwear:

Best: Hand-sewn Red, blue, or brown wool cloak closed with ties, knitted or sewn wool, linen or silk mitts. The cloak can be long or short, with or without a hood. Muffs in wool, silk or appropriate fur are acceptable.

Discouraged: gloves, or fingerless gloves (remember you can wear gloves under a pair of mittens!) Unless they are leather.

Unacceptable: Crotched items, renaissance fair/fantasy style cloaks.









Hours of Operation

The Fort is open year round with the exception of New Years Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

  • Jan - June 9:00 am - 5:00 pm
  • July - Aug - 9:00 am - 7:00 pm
  • Sept - Dec - 9:00 am - 5:00 pm.

General Admission



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Please note: Ticket sales end 30 minutes before closing time.



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